What is Genovese Sauce?
La Genovese is puree of onions flavored mainly with meat and is considered one of the greats of the Neapolitan kitchen; a dish that bears witness of superb cooking before the arrival of tomato!
The Origins of Genovese Sauce…
Some people say that in the 16th century, the private chefs of the Genovese merchants living in Naples made this dish.
In time merchants returned to their own homes in Genoa, but many of the chefs remained since leaving the beautiful city simply wasn’t an option. “They set up shops or stands selling food to the public, many of whom didn’t have kitchens in their tiny, one-room apartments (bassi). The sauce that was to become known as la Genovese was their specialty“.
As with all things in Naples, there are many versions of the truth. Genovese merchants, there certainly were.
However, the Spanish Viceroys were in charge of matters in the 16th century and Naples wasn’t doing that well; the Viceroys were far more interested in themselves than in the welfare of anyone around them.
Furthermore, the rich Genovese were very rich and some doubt that a chef would choose to remain in a city so that he could cook on the street. They obviously haven’t been to Naples.
The early recipes for La Genovese are different to the modern ones, and it’s to be expected; it would frightfully boring if food didn’t evolve at all. In 1837, Ippolito Cavalcanti gives a recipe in his Cucina casarinola co la lengua Napolitana (Home Cooking in the Neapolitan Language) & it’s essentially a French glacede viande, a meat stock reduction. At that stage then, it hadn’t become an onion sauce.
It contained the French mirepoix, though: equal amounts of diced onions, carrots and celery to flavor the rich sauce. In this recipe, the onions took over with the carrots and celery really just a token compared to the onions. In Naples meat is pricey which is why cheaper cuts were for flavoring the onions, not vice-versa.
Often beef wasn’t used but rather scraps of salami and ham, a piece of prosciutto rind or a bone. Some people even began to make the sauce without any meat. Maccheroni with a sauce of only onions, a finta Genovese (fake Genovese), became a fast day-dish which it is to this day.
…and How Is Served Today
Today La Genovese is made with meat again and in the newly affluent Campania, it’s made with enough meat so that the meat itself , sliced and dressed with a bit of the onion sauce can serve as the second course.
A green vegetable, preferably peas will be served with it, really just to garnish.
The sauce, that tastes quite like the gravy from a Jewish-American pot roast, is the most important part and it’s served primarily with ziti or mezzani or long tubular maccheroni (a slightly larger version of bucatini, often broken into 6 or 8 cm lengths or cut into shorter lengths in the factory.
Neapolitans would find penne acceptable, too. Using water to cover the meat and onions and not relying only on the meat and onion juices for a sauce is the basics of cooking this rather old-fashioned dish.
The only contemporary thing about the recipe would be the tomato paste sometimes used to color or enhance the flavor but it’s quite unacceptable to traditionalists who insist that la Genovese predates the tomato; they’re correct.
Pasta alla Genovese Sauce
Contrary to its name, this traditional Italian sauce comes from Naples!
- 600 g onions (sliced)
- 500 g lean beef mince
- 3 carrots (thinly sliced)
- 2 celery sticks (cleaned and finely sliced)
- 50 g salami Napoli (diced)
- 40 g Prosciutto crudo (diced (you can also use pork shoulder here))
- 100 ml passata di pomodoro
- 1 glass dry white wine
- 3 generous tablespoons olive oil
- 2 tablespoons lard
- Sea salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
- Heat the oil and the lard in a heavy based saucepan over medium heat.
- Add all the onions and sweat until just soft and then add the beef, the carrots, the celery, the salami and the prosciutto (or the cured pork shoulder).
- Cook, stirring and breaking up the beef if it clumps with a wooden spoon.
- If you follow our directions for mince in the basically section, it will not clump.
- Continue this until the meat has browned.
- Dilute the passata with a little water and add to the saucepan.
- As soon as the liquid has reduced completely, pour over the white wine and allow the sauce to simmer very gently for at least two hours.
- Just before serving this, mash down the sauce with a fork until the onions are smooth.
- Serve hot with rigatoni, paccheri or any of the pastas mentioned above.
Other Italian sauces:
- Traditional Authentic Ragù alla Bolognese
- Neapolitan ragu
Other Neapolitan pasta recipes:
- Baked Ziti